I heard this question asked the other night. I didn’t think so. The reason is that I have been exposed to a lot of media violence. I have played Counter Strike and Call of Duty for over 10 years and have watched a lot of movie violence. Even after all that, when I see an actual act of violence, I have an instant significant emotional, even physical, reaction to it. The 1968 execution of Captain Bảy Lốp is one example. I saw it once. It affected me profoundly and I will not willingly see it again.
Based on this evidence, I would suggest that all my exposure to violence has not desensitized me to actual violence.
The person to whom this question was addressed claimed there is no doubt that movie violence affects the viewer.
In one sense this is certainly true—one of the purposes of film, indeed all art, is to affect the viewer. I think, though, that behind the statement was the tacit assumption that movie violence has significant negative effect.
I wouldn’t have been too worried about this claim except that it wasn’t about the violence in Pulp Fiction, Fight Club, or No Country for Old Men. It was about the action sequences in the Avengers. I wasn’t so sure about that.
James Potter brings together many studies on the effects of violence in On Media Violence. Ted Turnau summarizes his findings in his book, Popologetics.
The data suggests that media violence can have an effect of viewers, “but the kinds of effects and the depth of those effects vary greatly depending on the individual viewer and his or her contexts.”
Those who are most affected media violence are:
- those who watch a lot of television;
- those who cannot differentiate between types of violence (small children or the mentally disabled);
- those who already have an aggressive personality;
- those who are already emotionally upset or angry when they see an episode of violence.
According to the research, “Family background seems to play an important role as well. Children who come from strong families that teach children that violence is not acceptable do not act out aggressively after seeing media violence.”
There is also a significant difference in how violence is portrayed. How it is portrayed makes a significant difference as to how much it will affect a viewer.
Violence seems to have more of an effect:
when the violence is portrayed realistically;
- when violence is seen by the viewer as justified;
- when the violent act seems to have no consequences;
- when the violent act goes unpunished;
- when the violence is done by an attractive person or a person who is demographically similar to the viewer;
- when violence in linked to erotic content.
Violence seems to have little or no effect on the viewer:
when the violence is portrayed in a humourous fashion;
- when violence is seen as having specific negative effects, such as pain to the victim, or when the perpetrator is punished;
- when violence is done without malice or a revenge motive by a professional, such as a policeman or a soldier in a war movie.
The research seems to suggest that violence does, in fact, affect the viewers. But it matters a great deal who the viewer is and the nature of the violence presented.